A piece of music of a nocturnal mood.
Concert in Italian Style, Presto Sheet Music by Johann Sebastian Bach
Irish composer John Field invented the form in the early 19th Century, which led to its popularisation by Chopin, who wrote 21 nocturnes. Italian: 'obligatory' An instrumental part which is essential in a piece of music. Popular in the baroque period. French: 'Martenot waves'.
An electronic instrument which produces sound using a keyboard which controls oscillating frequencies. Latin: 'work' A term is generally used in the listing of a composer's works by opus numbers, usually abbreviated to Op.
Italian Concerto (Bach) - Wikipedia
Since the Latin plural opera would lead to unnecessary confusion it is best avoided, although the alternative opuses remains an unsatisfactory substitute. Opus numbers are not always a guide to the date of composition or even to the date of publication.
Italian: 'pulpit'. A large scale work for orchestra and voices, usually sacred in nature. Oratorios are narrative in the same way as opera, but are performed without staging, costume, action or scenery. An introductory movement to an opera or substantial work. In opera, the overture usually contains examples of the major musical themes that will appear throughout the work - a type of trailer for what is to come.
A baroque dance form in which a short melodic phrase, usually in the bass, form the basis of the work. A five-note scale consisting of the black notes on the keyboard. Used in folk music from many countries, it is readily associated with an 'oriental' sound. Italian: 'soft loud'. Colloquially known as the 'piano'.
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A keyboard instrument developed int he 18th Century. The piano evolved from the harpsichord, in that the piano creates sound by hammers hitting strings, rather than the strings being plucked. The term 'pianoforte' is a mix of two Italian words, 'piano' soft and 'forte' loud , meaning depending on how much force is applied to the keys, the instrument's dynamic range can be anywhere from very soft to very loud.
The frequency of the vibration of sound. Pitch is measured in hertz, and is generally organised in a system known as 'equal temperament', a system of tuning in which different notes have a standardised pitch ratio. Italian: 'plucked' A direction to string instrument performers to pluck the strings, rather than using the bow to create sound. Italian: 'more'. A term that can preface an instruction to mean 'more of'.
Italian: 'little by little'. An term that can preface and instruction meaning to follow it 'little by little'. For example, 'poco a poco crescendo', meaning, getting louder gradually, little by little. Italian: 'quick' An instruction that a movement, section therein, or work is fast in tempo. A division of pitches, smaller than a semitone, which is half a tone. Found generally in some music from the 20th Century.
Italian: 'becoming slower'. Often abbreviated as 'rall In vocal works, recitative is a moment where a solo voice sings in relatively free rhythm. Usually preceding an 'aria' the main song , recitative is usually used to illustrate plot and narrative in opera.
A Catholic Mass of the dead. A French folk dance, typically used in instrumental suites from the 17th and 18th Centuries.
Often abbreviated as 'rit. Italian: 'held back' An instruction to slow down. In architecture and visual art, the rococo was characterised by a light, decorative French style.
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In music, the term is applied to a period characterised by highly decorative, elaborately ornate music. A form with a recurring theme, usually used as the final movement of a sonata or concerto. Italian: 'stolen'. An instruction to play with freedom. Rubato allows performers to deviate from strict tempo regularity, and can enhance expressive playing. In essence, by 'stealing' time, or borrowing it, it should be contrasted with strict time, in a musically correct method of atonement.
Italian: 'joke'. A movement from a work. Originating in the 17th Century, the form usually appears in a Symphony as a fast, light-hearted second or third movement. A compositional technique developed in the 20th Century by Arnold Schoenberg, as a method of ordering the seemingly chaotic and arbitrary technique to atonality. Serialism uses the twelve semitones of the octave in a particular order, known as a 'tone-row', which serves as a basis on which a work is structured. Italian: 'sonare', to sound. A composition for soloist, or soloist with piano accompaniment.
The sonata usually consists of several movements with one or more in sonata form. Sonata-form is a form in which a movement is divided into three sections, exposition, development and recapitulation. The exposition usually contains two contrasting themes, which are then developed in the development, to be re-heard in the recapitulation, ending in a coda. A large scale orchestral work, usually in four movements, in which at least one is in sonata-form.
The movements correspond roughly to a pattern of: Opening movement; Scherzo; Slow movement; Finale. Italian: 'time'. The speed at which a piece of music is played. Tempo indications are given either at the beginning of a piece, or within it. Sometimes tempo is indicated by strict beats-per-minute, or using terminology which can be more flexible.
A male singing voice between bariton and countertenor. The highest of the ordinary adult male range. Italian: from 'toccare', to touch. Spaghetti and Meat Sauce. A house specialty! Meat sauce is prepared per order and ladled over spaghetti. Spaghetti with Sausage, Onions and Peppers. Spaghetti Pomodoro. House made marinara sauce rich with fresh garlic, fresh basil and other seasonings atop spaghetti.
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