This chapter summarizes and discusses the economic assessment performed by Zweiler et al. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects on the economic performance, if key parameters were varied. Based on experimental results and simulations carried out within this project, a flexible economic model was acquired. The aim of this economic assessment was to evaluate the return on investment ROI of commercial Winddiesel biorefineries. Assumed product distribution and their estimated marked prices [ 39 ].
Data summary used to perform the economic assessment [ 39 ]. The economic performance was assessed by calculating the ROI Eq. The yearly profit was calculated by subtracting the operational costs from the income. Considering the commercialization of the integrative energy-storing and fuel production concept, it needs to be more profitable than a standalone BtL plant including biomass gasification and FTS. Subsequently, the breakeven point regarding the integration of excess electricity was evaluated. The breakeven point describes the minimal full-load operating hours necessary, to obtain a ROI equal to the standalone BtL concept.
The minimal electrolysis operating hours to gain a ROI of 8. The full-load operating hours of the electrolysis unit were kept constant for each sensitivity analysis performed in this economic assessment. Economic performance of the proposed biorefinery top-left: fuel cost variation; top-right: price variation of excess electricity; bottom-left: variation of investment funding, based on data from [ 39 ].
Within this project, the effects of the fluctuating syngas flow on the FTS performance were investigated. Three long-term campaigns were performed comparing different load regimes applied to the SBCR regarding per-pass CO conversion, productivity, and product distribution. A direct utilization of excess electricity would imply higher and fluctuating loads to the FTS compared to conventional BtL operation.
The substance class analysis showed that the solid FT products have a higher n-paraffin share compared to liquid FT products. In the solid FT fraction, a n-paraffin of up to By comparing the performance of the applied commercial-grade cobalt-based FT catalysts, it became obvious that catalyst choice will be a major factor towards a stable and economic plant operation. This experimental work indicates that the utilization of excess electricity via electrolysis, CO 2 gasification, and FTS could increase the productivity compared to conventional BtL operation and at the same time maintain the product distribution in the same range.
The improvement of fuel flexibility will be one of the main economic challenges for industrial gasification plants in the future.
Clever chemistry offers new source of jet fuel
Lignocellulosic residues, sewage sludge, or plastic residues might be easily obtainable, low-cost feedstock alternatives. Germany, for example, produced about 1. Additional However, the challenges of the utilization of plastic were reviewed by Lopez et al. Increasing costs for waste management and waste disposal, if not prohibited by law, might be a benefactor that promotes the utilization of these materials via gasification [ 64 ]. The applicability of gases produced by sewage sludge or plastic gasification [ 64 , 65 , 66 ] for FTS needs to be evaluated in further research work. A suitable location providing secure access to low-cost gasification feedstock and nearby product consumers might be municipal waste management facilities.
It seems realistic that investment funding will be granted to a demonstration plant. However, follow-up plants are not expected to be subsidized. The experimental work and the economic assessment indicate that the utilization of excess electricity improves the productivity of the proposed biorefinery, compared to conventional BtL FT setups. Further experimental work should evaluate the benefit of adding a gas loop and a steam reformer to the FT unit.
W n mass fraction of hydrocarbons with n carbon atoms. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.
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Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery pp 1—12 Cite as. Fischer-Tropsch products from biomass-derived syngas and renewable hydrogen. Open Access. First Online: 22 June The addition of renewable power production capacities is predicted to increase in the next years [ 14 ]. This expansion will correlate with the availability of fluctuating excess electricity.
Power-to-gas PtG systems are a suitable technology to convert and subsequently store excess electricity [ 15 ]. Gahleitner [ 16 ] gives an overview on realized PtG facilities. One of the main issues regarding the quick integration of H 2 or CH 4 , produced via PtG technologies, as transportation fuel is the lack of cars powered with these fuels. In Germany, over 45 million registered vehicles are powered by diesel or gasoline, whereas less than one million are powered by alternative power trains, in [ 17 ].
Even though new legislation may benefit the development and distribution of alterative powertrains, a complete shift away from internal combustion engines ICE will take time. To reach a rapid reduction of CO 2 emissions in transportation, alternative fuels will be needed to power existing ICEs.
The Winddiesel technology provides a solution to this dilemma. The basic idea of this technology is shown in Fig.
Biomass gasification, using CO 2 and steam as gasification agent, produces CO-rich product gas [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ]. CO 2 is removed from the product gas stream. If excess electricity is available, CO 2 is recycled as gasification agent to the gasifier promoting the reverse water-gas shift RWGS reaction. H 2 , produced by excess electricity, is mixed with the CO-rich product gas from biomass gasification. Subsequently, FTS is applied to convert the cleaned and conditioned syngas to hydrocarbons.
If integrated without storage capacities, the fluctuating H 2 implies load changes to FTS. Compared to a conventional biomass-to-liquid BtL FT concept, the FT capacity is enlarged, an electrolyzer is added to enable the utilization of excess electricity, and CO 2 is recycled. The desired products naphtha, diesel, and wax are fractionated and if required refined. After purification, the product water can be recycled as feed for electrolysis. Open image in new window.https://silkdum.tk
Greener Fischer-Tropsch Processes For Fuels And Feedstocks, Наука, Образование Россия
At the commercial plant, contaminants like particles, benzene, toluene, xylene BTX , and tars are reduced to levels suitable for gas engine application. Nevertheless, this gas cleaning is not sufficient for FT synthesis and further cleaning steps were integrated in the FT unit. Table 1 Ranges of the main components of the product gas [ 48 ].
The laboratory FT unit used to perform the experiments has been continuously improved, integrating know-how of over 10, operating hours. Several works [ 24 , 32 , 38 , 51 , 52 , 53 ] described the extensive research performed, operating the laboratory FTS unit. The basic flow sheet of the FT unit is shown in Fig. The three main plant sections are as follows.
The integration and subsequent storing of renewable H 2 were investigated by applying load changes to the FT system.
Figure 3 shows the volume flow applied to the SBCR simulating low capacity, benchmark operation, peak capacity, and load changes. The SBCR was designed to process 3. Experiments performed at low feed rate 3. The experiments performed at 7. Thus, this experimental work evaluated the effects of low capacity, high capacity, and load change operation on the SBCR. Table 2 summarizes published experimental results. In total, three campaigns experiments 2 to 4 were carried out to investigate the influence of fluctuating renewable H 2 to FTS.
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Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Categories: Organic Chemistry. The key is producing synthetic gasoline syngas using the Fischer-Tropsch process. The topics include what Fischer-Tropsch is, what can be done with Fischer-Tropsch products, preparing iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, mechanistic studies related to the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis and some cognate processes, and environmental sustainability.
In addition to the chemical and industrial side of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, this monograph deals with process economics as well as such "green" concepts as sustainability and environmental care. The result is a practical reference for researchers and engineers working on fuel processing or fuel cell technologies in industry, while equally serving as a great introductory book for graduate courses in chemistry and chemical engineering. With its didactical approach, the book can also be used for training chemists and engineers in the coal chemical, petrochemical, and power generation industries.
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