In the first week after a traumatic brain injury, a person may have a risk of seizures, which anti-seizure drugs help prevent. Coma-inducing drugs may be used during surgery to reduce impairments and restore blood flow.
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Various professions may be involved in the medical care and rehabilitation of someone suffering impairment after a brain injury. Neurologists , neurosurgeons , and physiatrists are physicians specialising in treating brain injury. Neuropsychologists especially clinical neuropsychologists are psychologists specialising in understanding the effects of brain injury and may be involved in assessing the severity or creating rehabilitation strategies.
Occupational therapists may be involved in running rehabilitation programs to help restore lost function or help re-learn essential skills. Registered nurses , such as those working in hospital intensive care units , are able to maintain the health of the severely brain-injured with constant administration of medication and neurological monitoring, including the use of the Glasgow Coma Scale used by other health professionals to quantify extent of orientation. Physiotherapists also play a significant role in rehabilitation after a brain injury.
In the case of a traumatic brain injury TBIs , physiotherapy treatment during the post-acute phase may include: sensory stimulation, serial casting and splinting, fitness and aerobic training, and functional training. There is no evidence to support the efficacy of this intervention. Evidence based research reveals that serial casting can be used to increase passive range of motion PROM and decrease spasticity.
To date, no studies supports the efficacy of sit to stand training, arm ability training and body weight support systems BWS. Other treatments for brain injury include medication , psychotherapy , neuropsychological rehabilitation , snoezelen , surgery , or physical implants such as deep brain stimulation. Prognosis, or the likely progress of a disorder, depends on the nature, location, and cause of the brain damage see Traumatic brain injury , Focal and diffuse brain injury , Primary and secondary brain injury.
In general, neuroregeneration can occur in the peripheral nervous system but is much rarer and more difficult to assist in the central nervous system brain or spinal cord. However, in neural development in humans , areas of the brain can learn to compensate for other damaged areas, and may increase in size and complexity and even change function, just as someone who loses a sense may gain increased acuity in another sense - a process termed neuroplasticity. There are many misconceptions that revolve around brain injuries and brain damage.
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One misconception is that if someone has brain damage then they cannot fully recover. Recovery depends a variety of factors; such as severity and location. Testing is done to note severity and location. Not everyone fully heals from brain damage, but it is possible to have a full recovery. Brain injuries are very hard to predict in outcome.
Many tests and specialists are needed to determine the likelihood of the prognosis. People with minor brain damage can have debilitating side effects; not just severe brain damage has debilitating effects. Children are at greater risk for injury due to lack of maturity. It makes future development hard to predict. In the case of a child with frontal brain injury, for example, the impact of the damage may be undetectable until that child fails to develop normal executive functions in his or her late teens and early twenties. The foundation for understanding human behavior and brain injury can be attributed to the case of Phineas Gage and the famous case studies by Paul Broca.
In , Phineas Gage was paving way for a new railroad line when he encountered an accidental explosion of a tamping iron straight through his frontal lobe. Gage observed to be intellectually unaffected but exemplified post injury behavioral deficits. These deficits include: becoming sporadic, disrespectful, extremely profane, and gave no regard for other workers.
Gage started having seizures in February, dying only four months later on May 21, Ten years later, Paul Broca examined two patients exhibiting impaired speech due to frontal lobe injuries. He saw this as an opportunity to address language localization.
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The second patient had similar speech impairments, supporting his findings on language localization. The results of both cases became a vital verification of the relationship between speech and the left cerebral hemisphere.
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A few years later, a German neuroscientist, Carl Wernicke , consulted on a stroke patient. The patient experienced neither speech nor hearing impairments, but suffered from a few brain deficits. These deficits included: lacking the ability to comprehend what was spoken to him and the words written down. After his death, Wernicke examined his autopsy that found a lesion located in the left temporal region. This area became known as Wernicke's area.
Wernicke later hypothesized the relationship between Wernicke's area and Broca's area, which was proven fact. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brain damage disambiguation. For the scientific journal on brain injuries, see Brain Injury journal. See also: Brain injury , Acquired brain injury , and Traumatic brain injury.
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Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. September Medicine portal Philosophy portal. After defeating Winston-Salem State at home to open the season, the Braves showed a lack of focus to follow up the game in a road loss at Virginia State two weeks ago.
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Chris Stiles can be reached at or by email at cstiles robesonian. You can follow him on Twitter at StilesOnSports. Only jogging on the field after a failed offensive drive in an attempt to flip the field, the value of a good punter is oftentimes overlooked.